Education Center

Importance of PKI and TLS Certificates in Kubernetes

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is crucial for authentication, encryption, and identity management in Kubernetes. With PKI, digital certificates are used to verify the identity of various components, such as nodes, users, and services within the cluster. Certificates serve as digital identities, enabling secure communication, encryption and establishing trust between different entities. PKI helps prevent unauthorized access to the cluster, ensuring that only trusted entities can interact with the Kubernetes infrastructure and its resources.

When using Kubernetes, network traffic must be secured using TLS certificates. TLS offers trust, data integrity and encryption, preventing unauthorized access to and tampering with sensitive data. TLS certificates secure transactions across the network by encrypting communication routes between nodes, pods, and services. By doing so, the cluster is protected from eavesdropping and interception by hostile threat actors while also ensuring the security and privacy of data and applications shared within the cluster. 

Virtual Event: Digital Identity Protection Day on 27 September 2023

Certificates for Kubernetes Servers: 

  • KubeAPI server: KubeAPI server receives and processes API calls and exposes HTTPS service that various components and users employ to manage the Kubernetes cluster.  In order to safeguard all communications with its clients, it needs TLS certificates in order to connect over HTTPS.
  • etcd server: A certificate is needed to safeguard the data on the Kubernetes cluster’s ETCD server, a database that houses all of the information about the cluster and its many components, including the KubeApi server, external users, and service accounts.
  • Kubelet server: Kubelet is the primary node agent that each node is running. The API server communicates with exposed HTTP API endpoints provided by Kubelet services. Certificate-based authentication is also needed by Kubelet in order to communicate with the worker nodes and KubeAPI server. 

Certificates for Kubernetes Clients: 

  • Admin: To operate the Kubernetes cluster, the administrator needs access to it. Therefore, in order to access the cluster by sending HTTP queries to the kubeAPI server, the admin needs to be authenticated using certificates.
  • Kube scheduler: When pods need to be scheduled, Kube Scheduler communicates with the kubeAPI server to request that the API server schedule the pods to the appropriate node. As a result, the scheduler is the Kube API server’s client and needs certificates to authenticate with it.
  • Kube controller: The basic control loops included with Kubernetes are embedded by the Kubernetes controller manager. As a result, it also communicates with the Kube API server as a client and needs the server to authenticate.
  • Kube proxy: Each node in a cluster runs Kube Proxy, a network proxy that upholds network regulations on each node. These settings enable network connectivity between network sessions inside and outside the cluster to reach your pods. As a result, it is also a client of the Kube API server and requires certificate-based authentication.

Kube proxy

Certificate Authority (CA) in Kubernetes: 

To sign each certificate, a certificate authority (CA) is required. You must have at least one certificate authority in your Kubernetes cluster. The pair of certificates and keys owned by the certificate authority are used to validate other certificates.

Challenges of Managing Certificates in Kubernetes 

Managing digital certificates in Kubernetes can present certain challenges due to the distributed and dynamic nature of the platform. Here are some common challenges:

  1. Certificate Lifecycle Management: Kubernetes deployments involve a large number of components, including nodes, services, and users, each requiring a unique digital certificate. Managing the lifecycle of these certificates, including issuance, renewal, and revocation, can become complex and error-prone without proper tools and processes in place.
  2. Scalability and Automation: As the number of nodes and services in a Kubernetes cluster scales up, managing certificates manually becomes impractical. Ensuring the automated provisioning and renewal of certificates at scale requires robust certificate management solutions that integrate seamlessly with Kubernetes.
  3. Certificate Distribution and Trust: Distributing and maintaining trust across the various components in a Kubernetes cluster can be challenging. Ensuring that each component trusts the appropriate certificate authorities (CAs) and verifying the authenticity of certificates can become cumbersome, especially in large and distributed clusters.
  4. Ephemeral pod volumes: Certificates in ephemeral pod volumes pose challenges for management due to their short-lived and dynamic nature. The misalignment of certificate lifespans with ephemeral volumes makes it difficult to coordinate expiration and renewal processes. Automating certificate management becomes essential to handle the rapid creation and deletion of certificates for each ephemeral pod. Distributing and securely storing private keys associated with these certificates adds complexity. Additionally, ensuring proper certificate revocation when pods are terminated requires careful tracking and coordination. Specialized solutions and integration with Kubernetes orchestration are pivotal to effectively manage certificates in ephemeral pod volumes.
  5. Secure Storage and Access Control: Storing certificates securely is crucial to protect them from unauthorized access or misuse. Implementing proper access controls, such as RBAC (Role-Based Access Control), to restrict certificate management privileges and ensure secure storage solutions are essential for maintaining certificate security.
  6. Visibility and Monitoring: Tracking and monitoring the health and expiration status of certificates across the Kubernetes cluster is vital. Without proper visibility and monitoring tools, it can be difficult to identify expiring certificates, potential vulnerabilities, or issues related to certificate management.

To overcome these challenges, organizations can leverage certificate management solutions designed specifically for Kubernetes environments. These solutions provide automation, scalability, and centralized management of certificates, easing the burden of certificate lifecycle management in Kubernetes deployments.

What is Cert-Manager? 

In Kubernetes, cert-manager is an open-source tool that provides basic management capabilities of digital certificates within a cluster. It helps automate the provisioning, renewal, and revocation of certificates for various Kubernetes resources such as nodes, services, and users.

AppViewX Certificate Lifecycle Management (CLM) Maturity Model

A cert-manager in Kubernetes typically integrates with a certificate authority (CA) to obtain and manage certificates from trusted sources. It handles the complexities of certificate lifecycle management, including certificate generation, distribution, and renewal, making it easier for administrators to handle the security aspects of their cluster.

Cert-manager for Kubernetes often provides additional features like secure storage of certificates, integration with Kubernetes APIs for seamless certificate management, and integration with Ingress controllers for automatic TLS termination and certificate provisioning.

Relation between Cert-Manager and Kubernetes Services 

The relationship between cert-manager and Kubernetes services is that the cert-manager is responsible for managing the certificates used by Kubernetes services. Here’s how they are related:

  1. Certificate Provisioning: Cert-manager in Kubernetes is responsible for provisioning the necessary certificates for Kubernetes services. It automates the process of obtaining and distributing certificates to the relevant services within the cluster.
  2. Certificate Lifecycle Management: Cert-manager handles the entire lifecycle of certificates used by Kubernetes services. It manages the issuance, renewal, and revocation of certificates, ensuring that they remain up-to-date and valid.
  3. Integration with Kubernetes APIs: Cert-manager integrates with Kubernetes APIs to interact with the cluster and retrieve relevant information about services. It utilizes the Kubernetes API to request and configure certificates for services, ensuring seamless integration.
  4. Secure Communication: Kubernetes services often require TLS certificates to enable secure communication.  Cert-manager plays a crucial role in generating and managing these certificates, ensuring that services can establish secure connections and encrypt their traffic.
  5. Ingress Controllers: Cert-manager often integrates with ingress controllers, which handle incoming traffic to Kubernetes services. Cert-manager can automatically provision TLS certificates for ingress controllers, enabling secure communication with external clients.

Overall, cert-manager and Kubernetes services have a symbiotic relationship, where cert-manager facilitates the secure operation of services by provisioning and managing the necessary certificates required for secure communication within the Kubernetes cluster.

Limitations of Cert-Manager

  1. Complexity: Cert-manager can be complex to set up and configure, especially for users who are new to Kubernetes and managing SSL/TLS certificates. It requires a solid understanding of Kubernetes concepts and resources, as well as the Certificate Authority (CA) infrastructure.
  2. Steep Learning Curve: The learning curve for  cert-manager can be steep, as it involves understanding and managing various components such as Issuers, Certificates, and ACME challenges. Users may need to invest time and effort in learning and troubleshooting the tool to use it effectively.
  3. Lack of Robustness: While cert-manager is a widely used tool, it may have occasional stability issues or bugs that can impact its functionality. Users may encounter issues during certificate issuance, renewal, or revocation, which may require troubleshooting and seeking community support.
  4. External Dependencies: Cert-manager relies on external services, such as DNS providers or ACME-based Certificate Authorities, for certificate issuance and renewal. This dependency on external services can introduce additional complexity and potential points of failure in the certificate management process.
  5. Limited Certificate Management Features: Cert-manager primarily focuses on certificate management and automation, which means it may have limited functionality in terms of managing other aspects of certificates, such as monitoring certificate health, expiration notifications, auditing, uniform policy enforcement, self-service capabilities, integrations with DevOps tools or comprehensive reporting. Users may need to integrate cert-manager with other tools or build custom solutions to fulfill these requirements.

How does a robust Certificate Lifecycle Management (CLM) solution enhance the Cert-Manager functionalities? 

The primary benefits of using  a robust certificate lifecycle management solution over the open-source cert-manager tool are:

  • Enhanced Functionality: A robust certificate lifecycle management solution often offers a broader range of features and capabilities beyond what cert-manager provides. It includes advanced certificate discovery, monitoring, alerting, reporting, and centralized management features that streamline the entire certificate lifecycle processes like issuance, provisioning, renewal, revocation, etc.. An end-to-end automated CLM solution standardizes PKI policy and governance, meets regulatory compliance mandates, and enables strong access control. 
  • Simplified Setup and Configuration: Unlike cert-manager, which can be complex to set up and configure, a dedicated certificate lifecycle management solution often provides a user-friendly interface and intuitive workflows that simplify the initial setup and ongoing management tasks.
  • Scalability and Performance: A robust certificate lifecycle management solution is designed to handle large-scale certificate deployments and complex environments efficiently. It can offer scalability, high availability, and optimized performance to meet the needs of growing organizations and their certificate management requirements.
  • Vendor Support and Expertise: Opting for an efficient certificate lifecycle management solution often provides access to dedicated vendor support and expertise. This support can be valuable in troubleshooting issues, getting timely assistance, and receiving guidance on best practices for certificate management.
  • Compliance and Security: A comprehensive certificate lifecycle management solution often includes built-in compliance and security features. It offers auditing capabilities, policy enforcement, and integration with security frameworks to ensure certificates are managed in accordance with industry standards and regulatory requirements.
  • Integration Capabilities: A dedicated solution may have better integration capabilities with other tools and systems within an organization’s infrastructure. It can seamlessly integrate with identity and access management (IAM) systems, monitoring tools, and automation frameworks, providing a unified approach to certificate management.
  • Long-term Reliability and Maintenance: A powerful certificate lifecycle management solution is typically backed by a vendor committed to ongoing maintenance, updates, and bug fixes. This ensures that the solution remains reliable, secure, and compatible with evolving industry standards and technologies.

While cert-manager is a popular open-source tool, organizations with more complex certificate management needs or those seeking additional features, scalability, support, and compliance may find a robust certificate lifecycle management solution to be a better fit. 

Let’s get you started on your certificate automation journey